Bookkeeping Class S - Income Statement

By Kohei Hayashi

In this article, I’d like to explain the basics of income statement for the purpose of taking the Class S of the Bookkeeping exam offered by the Japan Chamber of Commerce.

The income statement (also known as the profit and loss statement with the abbreviation P/L) presents the profit of a business during a specific period of time. Frequently used periods are 1 month for monthly reporting, 3 months for quarterly reporting, 6 months for interim results, and 1 year for final financial results.

In its basic form, the income statement is represented by the following equation.
Revenues - expenses = net income (or net loss)

Let’s take a look at examples of ledger accounts under revenues and expenses.


The following ledger accounts are categorized as revenues.

  • Sales revenue: Money obtained by selling goods.
  • Service revenue: Money obtained by providing service.
  • Interest revenue: Interests on bank deposits and other money lent.
  • Foreign exchange gain: Profits on fluctuations in foreign exchange rates


The following ledger accounts are categorized as expenses.

  • Utilities expense: Water, gas, and electricity expenses
  • Salaries and wages expense: Salaries and wages you pay to your employees.
  • Rent expense: Rent for your office.
  • Interest expense: Interest on bank loan and other money you borrow.
  • Foreign exchange loss: Loss on fluctuations in foreign exchange rates
  • Income tax expense: Tax you pay on your profits.